[T]he false use of ethics as a means of deception.
In childhood we require others to imitate: virtue ethics.
In adulthood we require general rules to apply : rule ethics.
In wisdom we require outcomes to measure : outcome ethics.
Not all can achieve outcome ethics. Some are stuck in virtue. Others in rule.
1) We forgive children who obey virtue ethics because they cannot understand rules.
2) We forgive adults who obey rule ethics because they cannot understand the outcomes.
3) We rarely forgive outcome ethics, which we see as error (when a general fails) and should have relied upon conventual wisdom or morality.
THE DARK SIDE
There are those who practice virtue and rule ethics in order to circumvent responsibility for outcomes.
Keynesianism and Rothbardianism are dark side ethics. They ignore the consequences in order to further current self interest.
Lies, more lies, and many more lies.
The Propertarian Institute