The West Indo European (Aryan) Europeans
Hierarchical and egalitarian only among the elite.
From Pirates to Privateers and Bucaneers to Marines
( conquerers, and holders, rulers not just pirates and raiders)
The Anatolians (Hittites)
The European (Germanic) Peoples
Kindred Not Clan: Germanic people practiced bilateral descent. Bilateral descent is a system of family lineage in which the relatives on the mother’s side and father’s side are equally important for emotional ties or for transfer of property or wealth. Descent and inheritance are passed equally through both parents. Families trace descent through both parents simultaneously and recognize multiple ancestors. And as a consequence it reduces risk and helps members live in extreme environments because it allows individuals to rely on two sets of families dispersed over a wide area. In other words the Kindred functioned as a micro-state or ‘pico-state’.
Extended Families of Residential Nuclear Families: The pre-christian germanics practiced residential nuclear families, but the extended family — the kindred — retained their purpose as ‘insurers’ and as such were the organizing principle both socially and legally in the germanic tribes.
The Sippe (Treaty): Sippe is German for “clan, kindred, extended family” – a band or confederation bound by a peace treaty or oath, not primarily restricted to blood relations. The average Sippe likely contained no more than 50 families. One of the functions of the Sippe was regulating use of forests (commons).